Metacognition is “cognition about cognition”, “thinking about thinking”, or “knowing about knowing”. It comes from the root word “meta”, meaning beyond. It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. There are generally two components of metacognition: knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition.
Meta-memory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition. Differences in meta-cognitive processing across cultures have not been widely studied, but could provide better outcomes in cross-cultural learning between teachers and students
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